1.What does LNB and LNBF refer to?
LNB refers to Low Noise Block.  LNBF refers to Low Noise Block Feed.
2. What is the difference between LNB and LNBF?
LNB usually just receives signal from 1 polarity (Just Vertical or Horizontal for Linear FSS and Right or Left for Circular DSS)  
Others are mostly LNBF's.  Generally on 13V DC, Vertical and Right polarities work; while on 18V DS, Horizontal and Left polarities work.
3. What is the difference of Standard Ku-band LNBF, Normal Ku-band LNBF, and Universal Ku-band LNBF?
LNBF's consists of 3 main types.  The first type is Standard.  Standard & Normal LNB and LNBF's are the same.  They are FSS linear and the frequency ranges from 11.7GHz to 12.2GHz. The second type of LNBF is Universal.  The frequency ranges from 10.7GHz to 12.75GHz.  In Europe and the Middle East, this is more popular because satellite there broadcast between 10.70GHz to 12.75GHz. In the United States, the third and the most popular for DISH Network & DirecTV is DSS.  DSS LNBF's are always circular, whose frequency ranges from 12.2GHz to 12.7GHz.
4. What is the difference between linear and circular LNBF's?
Linear includes Horizontal and Vertical.  Circular includes Left and Right.  Circular hits your dish more like a screw that is turning as its coming down. 
5. Is C-band Linear or Circular?
C-band, just like Ku-band can be either linear or circular.  Most C-band satellites are linear not circular. 
6. How to confirm if I need a linear or circular LNBF?

Go to lyngsat.com and choose the satellite you are trying to pick up.  Under the transponder frequency column (Freq. Tp) you will see a letter next to the frequency.  If the letters used are R or L (Right or Left), then it's a circular broadcasting transponder.  If you see the letters H or V (Horizontal or Vertical), then it's a linear broadcasting transponder. 

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